07, January 2021 |
Authors:A.B.M. Md. Khademul Islam Md. Abdullah‐Al‐Kamran Khan Rasel Ahmed Md. Sabbir Hossain Shah Md. Tamim Kabir Md. Shahidul Islam A. M. A. M. Zonaed Siddiki
Background: Although it is becoming evident that individual’s immune system has a decisive influence on SARS‐ CoV‐2 disease progression, pathogenesis is largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to profile the host transcriptome of COVID‐19 patients from nasopharyngeal samples along with virus genomic features isolated from respective host, and a comparative analyses of differential host responses in various SARS‐CoV‐2 infection systems. Results: Unique and rare missense mutations in 3C‐like protease observed in all of our reported isolates. Functional enrichment analyses exhibited that the host induced responses are mediated by innate immunity, interferon, and cytokine stimulation. Surprisingly, induction of apoptosis, phagosome, antigen presentation, hypoxia response was lacking within these patients. Upregulation of immune and cytokine signaling genes such as CCL4, TNFA, IL6, IL1A, CCL2, CXCL2, IFN, and CCR1 were observed in lungs. Lungs lacked the overexpression of ACE2 as suspected, however, high ACE2 but low DPP4 expression was observed in nasopharyngeal cells. Interestingly, directly or indirectly, viral pro‐ teins specially non‐structural protein mediated overexpression of integrins such as ITGAV, ITGA6, ITGB7, ITGB3, ITGA2B, ITGA5, ITGA6, ITGA9, ITGA4, ITGAE, and ITGA8 in lungs compared to nasopharyngeal samples suggesting the possible way of enhanced invasion. Furthermore, we found comparatively highly expressed transcription factors such as CBP, CEBP, NFAT, ATF3, GATA6, HDAC2, TCF12 which have pivotal roles in lung injury. Conclusions: Even though this study incorporates a limited number of cases, our data will provide valuable insights in developing potential studies to elucidate the differential host responses on the viral pathogenesis in COVID‐19, and incorporation of further data will enrich the search of an effective therapeutics.
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