10, March 2021 |
Authors:Y. Matsuishi Y. Inoue Bryan J. Mathis N. Shimojo J. Subrina N. Okubo
Since December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has transfixed the medical world. COVID-19 symptoms vary from mild to severe and underlying chronic conditions such as pulmonary/cardiovascular disease and diabetes induce excessive inflammatory responses to COVID-19 and these underlying chronic diseases are mediated by endothelial dysfunction. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most common cause of death in COVID-19 patients, but coagulation induced by excessive inflammation, thrombosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) also induce death by multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome. These associations imply that maintaining endothelial integrity is crucial for favorable prognoses with COVID-19 and therapeutic intervention to support this may be beneficial. Here, we summarize the extent of heart injuries, ischemic stroke and hemorrhage, acute kidney injury, and liver injury caused by immune- mediated endothelial dysfunction that result in the phenomenon of multi-organ dysfunction seen in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, the potential therapeutic effect of angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors that improve endothelial dysfunction as well as the bradykinin storm are discussed.
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