19, April 2021 |
Authors:F. Yusuf M. Fahriani Sukamto S. Mamada A. Frediansyah A. Abubakar D. Maghfirah Jonny K. Fajar Helnida A. Maliga M. Ilmawan Talha B. Emran Y. Ophinni Meutia R. Innayah Sri Masyeni Abdulla Salem Bin Ghouth Hanifah Yusuf K. Dhama F. Nainu H. Harapan
Background: This study aimed to determine the cumulative prevalence of prolonged gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lack of appetite, abdominal pain, and dysgeusia, in survivors of both mild and severe COVID- 19 worldwide and to discuss the potential pathogenesis. Methods: Three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched for relevant articles up to January 30, 2021. Data on study characteristics, clinical characteristics during follow-up, the number of patients with prolonged GI symptoms, and total number of COVID-19 survivors were retrieved according to PRISMA guidelines. The quality of eligible studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The pooled prevalence of specific prolonged GI symptoms was calculated and the association between COVID-19 severity and the occurrence of prolonged GI symptoms was assessed if appropriate. Results: The global prevalence of prolonged nausea was 3.23% (95% CI: 0.54%–16.53%) among 527 COVID-19 survivors. Vomiting persisted in 93 of 2,238 COVID-19 survivors (3.19%, 95% CI: 1.62%–6.17%) and prolonged diarrhea was found in 34 of 1,073 survivors (4.12%, 95% CI: 1.07%–14.64%). A total of 156 patients among 2,238 COVID-19 survivors (4.41%, 95% CI: 1.91%–9.94%) complained of persistent decreased or loss of appetite. The cumulative prevalence of prolonged abdominal pain was 1.68% (95% CI: 0.84%–3.32%), whereas persistent dysgeusia was identified in 130 cases among 1,887 COVID- 19 survivors (7.04%, 95% CI: 5.96%–8.30%). Data was insufficient to assess the relationship between COVID-19 severity and the occurrence of all prolonged GI symptoms. Conclusion: Persistent GI symptoms among COVID-19 survivors after discharge or recovery raises a concern regarding the long-term impact of the COVID-19 infection on the quality of life of the survivors. Despite several potential explanations proposed, studies that aim to follow patients after recovery from COVID-19 and determine the pathogenesis of the prolonged symptoms of COVID-19 survivors are warranted.
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